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Triclosan and triclocarban are persistent in the environment. 2009, 2010) and upon heating and combustion (Kanetoshi et al. Triclocarban degrades via aerobic biodegradation and photolysis into 4-chloroaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline (Ding et al. 2007) and animals (Coogan and La Point 2008; Fair et al. Triclosan, methyl triclosan, and triclocarban all bioaccumulate rapidly in algae and snails exposed to wastewater treatment effluent with calculated bioaccumulation factors in the thousands (Coogan et al. In biosolids-amended soil ecosystems, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and triclocarban bioaccumulate in earthworms (Higgins et al. Aquat Toxicol 16–353, PMID: 20855117, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Sandborgh-Englund G, Adolfsson-Erici M, Odham G, Ekstrand J. Pharmacokinetics of triclosan following oral ingestion in humans. Urinary triclosan levels and recent asthma exacerbations. Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization. Gen Comp Endocrinol 20–107, PMID: 27235644, 10.1016/j.ygcen.20. Environ Sci Technol 98–5004, PMID: 12523412, 10.1021/es025750i CCC. Chemosphere 3–949, PMID: 10739030, 10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00337-9. 2003) and during heating and combustion (Kanetoshi et al. In a recent study using an artificial skin model, topically applied triclosan transformed into 2,8-DCDD under ultraviolet irradiation (Alvarez-Rivera et al. Chlorinated triclosan derivatives (formed during chlorine disinfection of wastewater and drinking water) transform into tri- and tetra-chlorinated dibenzo--dioxins in sunlight-exposed surface waters (Buth et al. Calculations suggest that incineration of sewage sludge containing triclosan and chlorinated triclosan derivatives contributes significantly to total dioxin emissions in the United States (Doudrick et al. In water disinfection processes, triclosan can react with free chlorine to produce chloroform (Rule et al. In a study testing household dishwashing soaps, lotions, and body washes in chlorinated water under simulated normal household use conditions, all of the products containing triclosan produced either chloroform or other chlorinated byproducts (Fiss et al. The results suggest that under some conditions, the use of triclosan in such products could potentially increase chloroform exposure to nearly double the background levels in tap water. 4-Chloroaniline is recognized by the State of California as known to cause cancer (Cal EPA 2017). Triclosan, triclocarban, and their transformation products and byproducts bioaccumulate in aquatic plants (Coogan et al. Calculations suggest that potential human exposure from contaminated vegetable consumption is less than exposure from personal care product use but greater than exposure from consumption of drinking water (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Mathews et al. Upon human exposure and uptake, triclosan and triclocarban are metabolized and excreted by the body within 36–72h (Sandborgh-Englund et al. Ricart M, Guasch H, Alberch M, Barceló D, Bonnineau C, Geiszinger A, et al. Triclosan persistence through wastewater treatment plants and its potential: Toxic effects on river biofilms. Environ Sci Technol 76–3185, PMID: 15926568, 10.1021/es048943. Environ Sci Technol 70–2277, PMID: 21341696, 10.1021/es1040865. Shekhar S, Sood S, Showkat S, Lite C, Chandrasekhar A, Vairamani M, et al. Detection of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from maternal blood plasma and amniotic fluid in Indian population. Triclosan: Occurrence and fate of a widely used biocide in the aquatic environment: field measurements in wastewater treatment plants, surface waters and lake sediments. Degradation half-life times of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs for environmental fate modeling. Scientists from both academia and nonprofit organizations coauthored in 2016 to share current scientific research on two widely used antimicrobial chemicals and to motivate broader consideration of the long-term impacts of antimicrobial use (see Appendix I). received an unrestricted research grant from Gojo; Gojo had no role in the support of this research or any of A. The Statement was introduced at DIOXIN 2016, the 36th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants in Florence, Italy, and has been signed by more than 200 international scientists and medical professionals (see Appendix II). Triclosan and triclocarban are not well regulated and may be found in 2,000 consumer and building products (Halden 2014). Triclosan has been detected in both raw and finished drinking water (Loraine and Pettigrove 2006), in ocean water (Xie et al. In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan and triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2003; FDA 2016). Triclosan and triclocarban have been detected in the environment throughout the world. A nationwide survey detected triclosan in ∼60% of U. 2012), with acute toxicity values ranging from 1.4 μg/L to 3,000 μg/L (von der Ohe et al. Triclosan affects reproduction and development in some fish (Dann and Hontela 2011) and may interfere with the action of thyroid hormones in amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations (Veldhoen et al. Triclosan and triclocarban can also affect reproduction in snails at environmentally relevant concentrations (Geiß et al. Triclosan has been detected in the urine of a majority of humans tested (Calafat et al. Human exposure to triclosan occurs primarily from the topical application and use of personal care products such as lotions, soaps, toothpastes, and mouthwashes (Bhargava and Leonard 1996; Moss et al. Toxicol Sci 1–106, PMID: 23192912, 10.1093/toxsci/kfs328. Anderson SE, Meade BJ, Long CM, Lukomska E, Marshall NB. Investigations of immunotoxicity and allergic potential induced by topical application of triclosan in mice. Anger CT, Sueper C, Blumentritt DJ, Mc Neill K, Engstrom DR, Arnold WA. Quantification of triclosan, chlorinated triclosan derivatives, and their dioxin photoproducts in lacustrine sediment cores. Photolytic degradation of triclosan in freshwater and seawater. Water Res 45–5552, PMID: 21903237, 10.1016/j.watres.20. Axelstad M, Boberg J, Vinggaard AM, Christiansen S, Hass U. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring. Adaptive resistance to biocides in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157 and cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. Environ Health Perspect 13–307, PMID: 18335095, 10.1289/ehp.10768. Cantwell MG, Wilson BA, Zhu J, Wallace GT, King JW, Olsen CR, et al. Temporal trends of triclosan contamination in dated sediment cores from four urbanized estuaries: Evidence of preservation and accumulation. Front Microbiol 0, PMID: 25642217, 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00780. Doudrick KD, Jones DB, Kalinowski T, Hartmann EM, Halden RU. Assessment of the contribution of triclosan to dioxin emissions from sludge incineration in the U. Environ Sci Technol 39–3447, PMID: 23469879, 10.1021/es400510g. Environ Sci Technol 70–4576, PMID: 18605588, 10.1021/es702882g. Allergy Asthma Proc 5–481, PMID: 25584915, 10.2500/aap.20.
Triclosan and triclocarban persist in the environment (Miller et al. Both compounds are predicted to have half-lives on the order of 60d in water, 120d in soil, and 540d in sediment (Halden and Paull 2005). 2009), and triclosan partitions into human blood and breast milk (Allmyr et al. Triclosan and triclocarban are highly hydrophobic and bioaccumulate in organisms living in aquatic systems exposed to effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The bioaccumulation and slow conversion of methyl triclosan in lower-level consumers such as catfish could transfer environmental triclosan to higher-level consumers in the food chain, including humans (James et al. Triclocarban bioaccumulates in freshwater worms (Higgins et al. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 61–1873, PMID: 16952905, 10.1080/15287390600631706. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 19–183, PMID: 24468262, 10.1016/20. J Allergy Clin Immunol 13–460, PMID: 22704536, 10.1016/20. Methyl triclosan may be more persistent than triclosan (Balmer et al. 2007), and it has been consistently detected in surface waters and sediments (Bester 2005; Sacks and Lohmann 2011). Highly sensitive indicator organisms, such as algae and crustaceans, experience potentially harmful exposures to triclosan and triclocarban in surface waters receiving raw and treated sewage (Chalew and Halden 2009). Triclosan exposure inhibits algal growth (Orvos et al. Triclosan is acutely toxic to aquatic macrobiota at microgram per liter (μg/L) concentrations (Franz et al. Balmer ME, Poiger T, Droz C, Romanin K, Bergqvist PA, Müller MD, et al. Occurrence of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan, in fish from various lakes in Switzerland. Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment. Hand washing practices in a college town environment. Buth JM, Steen PO, Sueper C, Blumentritt D, Vikesland PJ, Arnold WA, et al. Dioxin photoproducts of triclosan and its chlorinated derivatives in sediment cores. PLo S One 10:e0127205, PMID: 26020245, 10.1371/0127205. Percutaneous penetration and dermal metabolism of triclosan (2,4,4’- trichloro-2′-hydroxydiphenyl ether). Short-term exposure to triclosan decreases thyroxine in vivo via upregulation of hepatic catabolism in young Long-Evans rats. Epidemiology 5–635, PMID: 25061923, 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000132. Philippat C, Wolff MS, Calafat AM, Ye X, Bausell R, Meadows M, et al. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols: Concentrations in amniotic fluid and variability in urinary concentrations during pregnancy. Triclosan elevates estradiol levels in serum and tissues of cycling and peri-implantation female mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 26–123, PMID: 24784443, 10.1016/20. Environ Tocixol Chem 33(5):975–984, PMID: 24375516, 10.1002/etc.2505. Appl Environ Microbiol 16–3123, PMID: 20305019, 10.1128/AEM.02757-09. Environ Sci Technol 33–1843, PMID: 23320506, 10.1021/es3045289. Chemosphere 52–1056, PMID: 16930676, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Food Chem Toxicol 4–540, PMID: 23831729, 10.1016/20. J Clin Microbiol –78, PMID: 14715734, 10.1128/JCM.42.1.73. Cal EPA (State of California Environmental Protection Agency). Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986: Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Chemosphere 7–352, PMID: 20006371, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Millow CJ, Mackintosh SA, Lewison RL, Dodder NG, Hoh E. Identifying bioaccumulative halogenated organic compounds using a nontargeted analytical approach: Seabirds as sentinels. Triclosan exacerbates the presence of C-bisphenol A in tissues of female and male mice. Bioaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban in plants grown in soils amended with municipal dewatered biosolids. Characterization of triclosan-resistant mutants reveals multiple antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in S1H. Many of those 19 chemicals have been in widespread use for decades, and many are still allowed in a number of other over-the-counter personal care products as well as in consumer and building products. The Green Science Policy Institute [a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization] received funding from New York Community Trust that was used to support the contributions of A. A large amount of triclosan and triclocarban is therefore discharged directly to conventional wastewater treatment plants (Bester 2005; Halden and Paull 2005). Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned nineteen antimicrobial ingredients, including triclosan and triclocarban, in over-the-counter consumer antiseptic wash products based on insufficient evidence demonstrating their safety for long-term daily use and that they reduce the spread of illness and infection. received a grant from the National Science Foundation [CBET 0,967,163 (Using triclosan and polyhalogenated dibenzo--dioxins to elucidate the importance of natural and anthropogenic sources of OH-PBDEs in fresh and estuarine waters)] that ended in 2014. 2013) and because the antibacterial ingredient is highly diluted during the washing process. Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment (Heidler and Halden 2009) and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide (Halden and Paull 2005; Singer et al. Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used in products intended for washing [e.g., an estimated 96% of triclosan is used in products that are intentionally disposed of down the drain, such as soaps and detergents (Reiss et al. These substances are also used in products that may be frequently washed (e.g., textiles, food contact materials, plastic surfaces). sewage sludge found triclosan and triclocarban at high levels, on average in the tens of milligrams per kilogram dry weight [Halden 2014; U.