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The alpha decay reduces the atomic number of the nucleus by 2 and the mass number by 4: Beta rays are more penetrating than alpha rays, move at a very high speed, and are deflected considerably by a magnetic field in a direction that indicates a negative charge; analysis shows that beta rays are high-speed electrons (see beta particlebeta particle,one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivity.

Beta radiation (or beta rays) was identified and named by E.

The thorium-234 produced above experiences two successive beta decays: Gamma rays have very great penetrating power and are not affected at all by a magnetic field.

They move at the speed of light and have a very short wavelength (or high frequency); thus they are a type of electromagnetic radiation (see gamma radiationgamma radiation,high-energy photons emitted as one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivity.

One half-life is the time required for one half of any given quantity of the substance to decay......

, which is the time required for one half of a given quantity of the substance to decay.

Ordinary electric current is the flow of electrons through a wire conductor (see electricity).

Alpha rays have the least penetrating power, move at a slower velocity than the other types, and are deflected slightly by a magnetic field in a direction that indicates a positive charge.particle accelerator,apparatus used in nuclear physics to produce beams of energetic charged particles and to direct them against various targets.Such machines, popularly called atom smashers, are needed to observe objects as small as the atomic nucleus in studies of its..... Essentially there is no difference between these two manifestations of radioactivity.It is the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation, with a very short wavelength (high frequency)...... Gamma rays result from the transition of nuclei from excited states (higher energy) to their ground state (lowest energy), and their production is analogous to the emission of ordinary light caused by transitions of electrons within the atom (see atomspectrum,arrangement or display of light or other form of radiation separated according to wavelength, frequency, energy, or some other property.Beams of charged particles can be separated into a spectrum according to mass in a mass spectrometer (see mass spectrograph)...... Gamma decay often accompanies alpha or beta decay and affects neither the atomic number nor the mass number of the nucleus.

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